Fifteen years ago, the parliament of former communist East Germany decided that a reunified Germany would be wiser and voted to join the West German state -- a historical moment that ended 45 years of Cold War.
The final military parade of the German Democratic Republic
Sabine Bergmann-Pohl's term in office as president of the East German parliament, and officially head of state, was short. She held the post from April 5 to Oct. 3, 1990 but on Aug. 23 of that year, the Christian Democratic politician would announce what was for most only unthinkable one year before, namely the dissolution of the German Democratic Republic, or East Germany.
When, at 3 a.m., Bergmann-Pohl announced the result of the vote, a tumultuous yet historic session came to an end. The workers' and farmers' state had collapsed over the course of eight months after existing 40 years.
Sabine Bergmann-Pohl reads the results of a parlimentary vote that would be the official death knell of the GDR
The answer was clear: 294 parliamentarians were for the dissolution of East Germany. Only 62 were against it.
"Parliament today decided nothing less," said Gregor Gysi, then head of the PDS party, the successor of the former ruling SED party, "than the destruction of the state of East Germany to take place on Oct. 3, 1990."
Protesters tired of state control
In hindsight, the vote of Aug. 23 was nothing but a rubber stamp for about 16 million East Germans. The protest wave that had begun in the autumn of 1989 had unleashed a series of events leading to the resignation of the country's ruler Erich Honecker.
When people started dancing on the Wall, they turned their back on East Germany
Those who watched the momentous televised debate in parliament were not ready to give the satellite of the Soviet Union another chance.
"I’ve partly watched the session on television and it’s been quite an awkward spectacle. It’s high time this farce came to an end," one East German was then quoted as saying.
The pressure on the parliamentarians had reached a head. The majority of the people had tasted freedom after Nov. 9, 1989. The time to carry the German Democratic Republic to its grave had neared.
The revolutionaries are toppled
What had led up to the historic vote on Aug. 23, 1990 was a lesson in grassroots civics. The New Forum civic movement had initiated the Monday demonstrations in Leipzig in 1989. By the first free elections in March 1990, however, the group had been eliminated from the political landscape. The pro-Western CDU swept into power, forcing into oblivion those groups that actually toppled communism in peaceful street protests.
US President Ronald Reagan at the Brandenburg Gate
Can history be repeated?
In the summer of 1990, the East German state was virtually bankrupt, managing to survive only by hanging on the purse strings of Western Germany. Hard Western deutsche marks were introduced in the East in June. West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl believed that free market economics would do the trick again and achieve a repeat of the West German post-war economic miracle.
Gregor Gysi, earlier with the East German SED party, now part of the Left Party
Now, 15 years on, much of eastern Germany continues to be economically depressed with high unemployment, low productivity and even less prospects -- in spite of about 50 billion euros ($60 billion) pumped into the region every year.
Blossoming landscapes were once promised to the people there, but what’s flourishing is disillusion and a renewed relish for leftwing policies. It's telling that Gregor Gysi, the leftist leader who once buried the communist party in the East, is now making a comeback there as co-leader of a new, nationwide far left party.
The Bayern Munich full-back has become one of Pep Guardiola's most important players this year. He holds on to the Austrian gong and looks likely to increase his list of awards in the future.
Germany's chemicals giant BASF and Russian energy company Gazprom have agreed to call off an important asset swap that the two firms had planned for the end of the year. The reason for the move was not immediately given.
EU leaders at their summit in Brussels are defending tough economic sanctions against Russia, but pressure to ease their stance is growing. DW's Christoph Hasselbach reports from Brussels.