A police officer's work is becoming ever more dangerous - at least that's what politicians and many officers say - and they're backed up by frightening images in the media. But statistics tell a different story.
At first glance, federal police detective Sven Kaden looks like he barely needs the equipment he dons every day before work - bulletproof vest, baton, firearm. He is not very big, but he is broad-shouldered. Strong and fit, Kaden is often on duty at Berlin's central train station.
From a perch above the platforms, he has a useful vantage point for observing the crowds. "You train yourself to separate people into dangerous and not dangerous," he said. He added that he feels like the threat of violence is increasing. "About a year ago, five colleagues wanted to arrest a suspect. He turned out to be high, and bit an officer in the leg."
Kaden's colleagues in the German federal police are often on duty in situations that result in spectacular outbreaks of violence - events such as May 1 demonstrations in Berlin, or protests against nuclear waste transports, or riots at football stadiums.
Police union representatives and politicians make public statements after such events almost reflexively, condemning the "increasing" violence against the police. "That these officers get attacked and their health is endangered is a development that we cannot accept," German Interior Minister Hans-Peter Friedrich said recently.
Guarding the guards
Politicians who publicly defend police officers are often seen as protecting the protectors. As a position that projects strength, it's a beneficial stance for a political leader to take.
The German parliament recently increased sentences for violence against law officers, from two to three years. Several parliamentarians, especially those belonging to the governing coalition, expressed a conviction that there had been a drastic increase of violence against the police.
Many law enforcement officers as well seem to believe that the relationship between the population and those charged with protecting it has worsened. "We're always the bad guy," said senior inspector Thomas Stetefeld.
As a Berlin patroller, Stetefeld believes that society is losing respect for him and his colleagues. Facing exaggerated ignorance, verbal abuse, t-shirts with the acronym A.C.A.B. - for "All Cops Are Bastards" - Stetefeld no longer feels comfortable on the streets.
Christian Pfeiffer, director of a criminological research institute in Lower Saxony, recently presented his new study, "Police as victims of violence."
Pfeiffer said the study shows that facing aggression is part of a policeman's everyday life. His study garnered much attention, not least because it included examination of not necessarily criminal forms of violence. Although many see Pfeiffer's study as evidence of increased violence, he himself disagrees.
"I don't believe that the 'everything is getting worse' argument is true here - after all, this is just a snapshot," he said, adding that since society is getting older and more peaceful, it follows that the police's working conditions are, too.
Official figures, such as on resistance to police officers, also point to this conclusion. Such resistance dropped again in 2011, by 241 cases to 21,257.
According to a report by the project group "Violence against Police Officers," set up by the German Interior Ministers' Conference, probably fewer than 1 percent of such incidents led to officers being seriously injured. Around a quarter led to minor injuries, while three quarters resulted in no damage to health at all.
But actual trends are hard to determine.
Society as perpetrator
But even if the violence is not actually increasing, is it perhaps getting more brutal? "The intensity has risen significantly," said Michael Eckerskorn of the police's sociological service, who has spoken to numerous officers who have been involved in violence. "It is quite alarming how some aggressors deliberately try to cause severe injury."
But Rafael Behr, professor at the police's higher education institute in Hamburg, does not think gathering impressions from officers on the street proves anything. "There is no reliable statistical evidence that police service is getting harder," he said.
"What is beyond doubt is that the perception of violence through the media and officers has grown," Behr said. He added that there is still a debate within the force about what actually constitutes violence.
Behr is troubled by the current tendency in presenting officers as victims and the constantly call on society to respect its protectors. He warned that this could depress officers' motivation.
Behr concluded that "society can't really be changed, but police work can always be improved."
Vienna was in raptures over the rhythmic energy they encountered at the premiere of Beethoven’s new symphony. Was the composer finally mad? Or had the audience just experienced a musical victory over Napoleon?
The European Central Bank has left its key interest rate at a historic low, pausing to assess the impact of its recent rate cut on the eurozone economy. But more monetary action might be needed to spur growth in 2014.
German pharmaceutical and chemicals firm Merck has offered to buy AZ Electronic Materials. Its bid for the UK-based materials manufacturer aims to bolster Merck’s position as the world’s top producer of liquid crystals.