France's debate on national identity ended amidst a backdrop of immigrant tensions. While some saw the discussion series as a vital public discourse, many felt it served as a platform for xenophobic comments.
What makes someone French?
A three month series of town hall debates on national identity and the essence of being French ended on Monday. Prime Minister Francois Fillon is to meet with other ministers to study the results before French President Nicholas Sarkozy decides which measures should be adopted.
France's immigration minister called the debates a success
The debates, which took place in communities across France, were meant to serve as a forum to discuss the core of French identity.
"We must reaffirm the values of national identity and pride in being French," Eric Besson, the Minister for Immigration and National Identity, said in November as he introduced the event.
Ultimately, the debates saw the introduction of several new proposals, including compelling school children to sing the national anthem, prohibiting the full Islamic veil in public spaces, and creating a stricter 'citizenship contract' for would-be French citizens.
However, many criticized the events for fostering anti-immigration sentiments towards Muslims, rather than defining French values. Opponents of President Nicholas Sarkozy said he used the series to pander to the right and rouse political support from conservatives for the upcoming elections in March.
A flag in every classroom
The French immigration minister, Eric Besson, called the debates a success. A website created to facilitate the discussion online received about 55,000 contributions, according to the ministry. Many of the recommendations from the debates, such as the hanging of French flags in classrooms, are expected to be enacted by summer.
In 2005, racial tensions triggered riots in the suburbs of Paris
France is home to about 6 million Muslims and prides itself on its secular values, including separation of church and states. However, the government is frequently criticized for its policies toward Arab and black minorities, many of whom are French citizens.
The debates, which began in November, have intensified in recent months against a backdrop of unrest among many who feel the debates are inciting anti-Muslim sentiments. On Monday swastikas and racial slurs were painted on the walls of a mosque in the town of Saint-Etienne. In December, Nazi slogans and pig feet were found in December in a mosque in Southern France.
Editor: Rob Turner
Thirty-year-old Markus Kaarma has been convicted of deliberately killing a German exchange student in Montana. Kaarma had argued he shot the teenager in self defense during a home invasion.
The Church of England has appointed vicar Libby Lane as its first female bishop. Church officials gave their final approval for female bishops last month.
Germany's government has agreed to send up to 100 Bundeswehr troops to northern Iraq. The soldiers, who will not be involved in combat, will train Kurdish forces fighting the "Islamic State" group.
Russia's art and architecture school of the 1920s has long been overshadowed by its famous German counterpart, Bauhaus. A new exhibition in Berlin's Martin-Gropius-Bau brings overdue recognition.