France's debate on national identity ended amidst a backdrop of immigrant tensions. While some saw the discussion series as a vital public discourse, many felt it served as a platform for xenophobic comments.
What makes someone French?
A three month series of town hall debates on national identity and the essence of being French ended on Monday. Prime Minister Francois Fillon is to meet with other ministers to study the results before French President Nicholas Sarkozy decides which measures should be adopted.
France's immigration minister called the debates a success
The debates, which took place in communities across France, were meant to serve as a forum to discuss the core of French identity.
"We must reaffirm the values of national identity and pride in being French," Eric Besson, the Minister for Immigration and National Identity, said in November as he introduced the event.
Ultimately, the debates saw the introduction of several new proposals, including compelling school children to sing the national anthem, prohibiting the full Islamic veil in public spaces, and creating a stricter 'citizenship contract' for would-be French citizens.
However, many criticized the events for fostering anti-immigration sentiments towards Muslims, rather than defining French values. Opponents of President Nicholas Sarkozy said he used the series to pander to the right and rouse political support from conservatives for the upcoming elections in March.
A flag in every classroom
The French immigration minister, Eric Besson, called the debates a success. A website created to facilitate the discussion online received about 55,000 contributions, according to the ministry. Many of the recommendations from the debates, such as the hanging of French flags in classrooms, are expected to be enacted by summer.
In 2005, racial tensions triggered riots in the suburbs of Paris
France is home to about 6 million Muslims and prides itself on its secular values, including separation of church and states. However, the government is frequently criticized for its policies toward Arab and black minorities, many of whom are French citizens.
The debates, which began in November, have intensified in recent months against a backdrop of unrest among many who feel the debates are inciting anti-Muslim sentiments. On Monday swastikas and racial slurs were painted on the walls of a mosque in the town of Saint-Etienne. In December, Nazi slogans and pig feet were found in December in a mosque in Southern France.
Editor: Rob Turner
Swiss banking giant UBS has agreed to pay Germany a hefty fine for its involvement in helping German clients hide money from tax authorities. It's the biggest fine ever paid to the country by a Swiss lender.
Deutsche Bank has been able to stop a slide in pre-tax earnings in the second quarter. But the German lender could not boost its net profit amid uncertainties over just how big further litigation costs might be.
The German government wants to increase its anti-spying protection. 3,000 crypto-phones have been distributed to the administration so far. The Chancellery and the White House are negotiating "principles among friends."
World-renowned German artist Gregor Schneider has covered a synagogue near Cologne with the façade of a drab suburban house. But by hiding it, he challenges visitors to look more closely at history and memory.