What are Germans wishing for this Christmas? In many churches, people write their Christmas wishes on small slips of paper and pin them up on the prayer wall.
Millions of Orthodox Christians have marked the birth of Christ with mass and prayers on Wednesday. In an unprecedented move, Egypt's President El-Sissi also briefly visited a Coptic cathedral on their Christmas Eve.
Spain's King Felipe VI has used his first Christmas speech as monarch to condemn corruption in his country. He made no reference to his sister, who faces jail on fraud charges.
The pope has urged "courage" and "tenderness" during Christmas Eve Mass. Prior to his Vatican homily, the pontiff spoke to a Christian refugee camp in Iraq in support of followers persecuted for their faith worldwide.
Christians from around the world have assembled in the West Bank town of Bethlehem to celebrate Christmas. There are thought to be fewer than in past years due to the Gaza conflict of this past summer.